Enemy deception, as one of the tools of military strategy, has been successfully used for more than one millennium. Disguise is one of the most important types of activities of the armed forces, aimed at increasing the survivability of personnel and combat vehicles. Its main task is to mislead the enemy, including giving false information about the number and location of military vehicles while hiding real units from enemy intelligence.
Among the means of disguise are imitation, demonstrative actions and misinformation. Imitation, as a kind of camouflage, has been designed to reproduce telltale signs of military installations, weapons, military equipment and elements of engineering equipment area. Creating false objects and false situations is achieved through the use of models of arms and military equipment, simulators and reflectors. Using the models, on the one hand, increases the probability of survival of military equipment and personnel, and on the other hand, forces the opponent to use expensive resources (ammunition and intelligence resources) for destruction of equipment that is non-comparable in terms of value.
Masking agents had to become more sophisticated in reaction to high-precision weapons and high-tech reconnaissance means used by armed forces today. In addition, a practice to start combat with air operations, currently used by NATO, has become a military standard. At this stage, primary targets of cruise missiles and massive air-missile strikes are: air defense, missile systems and aviation. This increases the proportion of automated tools, involved in processing of intelligence data, and on-board weapons. Thus, time for decision on the choice of targets and striking is reduced which, in turn, all owes the use of masking techniques to hide these technologies. Modern means of concealment and AMSE simulation are primarily intended to meet both the requirements of mobility and speed of deployment, and operation in all ranges of radar wavelengths, engaging reconnaissance and destruction means.
In the early 60s decoys of medium tank and tank turrets have been developed and put into service. Layouts consisted of collapsible metal frames covered with rubber-sealed envelope, filled with air with use of foot bellows. Since then, pneumatic design has been widely used in the development of models of aviation and rocketry.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, specialists of InflaTech company have joined together to design and manufacture AMSE models. The company proposed an innovative approach using a constant supply of air. Transition from a traditional technology, operating until 2000, of sealed (airtight) AMSE circuit-layout to a leaky circuit with a constant over pressure allowed to reduce the weight of the layout by up to ten times, and to reduce the cost by more than two times. The performance properties, including elimination of the need to repair minor damage, have been significantly improved.
The technical issue of effective camouflage (simulation and hiding) by armed groups remains unresolved. Traditionally, engineering units are not fully able to provide camouflage to mobile combat units, for example under air attack. The exact adaptation of masking by the underlying surface in optical and thermal range of radio waves also remains a problem.
The provision of armored vehicles with active protection methods is only partially effective. For example, modernPantsir-S1 air defense complex is capable of hitting targets at a distance of 20 km. At the same time, it is one of the first targets that will be hit after detection. Calculations show that 16 strikes of air-to-surface AGM-65 Maverick (USA) tactical missiles are required to destroy Pantsir-S1. However, destroying the complex represents only21% of the value of the AGM-65 Maverick, one of the most expensive rockets. For the Tor-M2complex, the figure is 7%. There is no doubt, that in order to improve survivability of mobile anti-aircraft missile systems and mobile tools concealment and simulation are required, capable of operating at a pace of the complexes themselves.
In order to improve the survivability of mobile anti-aircraft missile systems, individual models are created, structurally integrated into a combat machine. These models do not require maintenance, and do not distract fighting crew from their main tasks. The layout automatically unfolds and it is possible to turn on simulation of combat activities, including simulated missile launch and simulated radio activity. Individual layout is integrated in to a combat vehicle; it only takes a click on the “Expand the layout” button to make it work.
In order to repeat the underlying pattern surface fabrics woven from strips are developed that can change color depending on the pressure exerted on them. Thermocouple formed at their intersection can change the temperature by a few degrees as a plus and minus. Such coating properties can effectively hide combat vehicles.
Combination of modern methods of masking allows improving survivability of modern mobile military equipment by ten times.