Fourth Generation Aircrafts
United States, Russia, and China are developing fifth generation fighters. Fifth generation jets are nearly wholly stealth. United States was the first country to enter the field of stealth planes with its F-117 bomber, but some believe that Russia may have developed radar systems capable of detecting stealth planes. Jet fighters that are considered intermediate between the 4th and 5th generations are: Sukhoi-35, MIG-35, F-15 SE, Super Hornet E/F 18, Gripen NG, Eurofighter , and Rafale.
Fifth generation jets will be unavailable to its countries because they are too expensive. India will buy more than 126 jets to replace fleets of Soviet-made planes, namely MiG-21. The estimated value of the deal is USD 10 billion. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia chose the F-15 SA fighter jet which is integrated with the most modern fighting improvements.
Fighter jets which are considered intermediate between the two generations are:
- Boeing F-15SE, Boeing F-15SA, Boeing SE/SA, Boeing F/A-18 Super Hornet. These jets are equipped with AESA radars, and BAE-Systems new systems for electronic war. The modern model of the F/A-18 Super Hornet is Block-2.
- SAAB JAS 39 Gripen (New Generation) It has one strong engine. It can use a long range air-to-air METEOR missile.
- Dassault Rafale. The most advanced intermediary (between two generations) jet with its AESA radar, and Spectra electronic war system. It was chosen by India.
- Eurofighter Typhoon: a two-engine jet that was chosen to play the multi-role air dominance in the post cold war era. It was chosen by Saudi Arabia. Rafale has a range of 2900 Km.
- Sukhoi Su-35: A heavy multi-role fighter has the most modern technologies. Sukhoi Su-35 is derived, but different, from SU-27. Su-35 has AESA radar, fly-by- wire technology, and new S 117 engines.
- MiG-35: another generation 4++. It has AESA radar, OLS optical- electronic system, and new Klimov RD-33MK.
- Chengdu J-10. China is developing this fighter plane that has radar signals absorbing materials, next generation electronic war equipment, and a locally-made WS-10B engine, and AESA radar. This is a multi-role jet capable of operating in all weather conditions. It has a single engine; its fighting radius is 1,600 Km.
- JF-17 Block-2. China and Pakistan will develop this light fighter.
Defense Posture in Jordan
Jordan has a geographic location that necessitates building a capable military force to defend its territories. The kingdom knows very well the costs of war after engaging in two wars with Israel (1948 and 1967), that is why the Jordanian policy gives priority to being in peace with all its neighbours. Efforts will be concentrated on enhancing the Jordanian economy in order to create jobs for a population increasing by a rate of 2.15% which is considered high.
One of the first challenges that Jordan faces is scarcity of water. Other challenges include growth in its GDP (32.4 Million Dollars).
Jordanian military forces have more than 100,000 soldiers. While Jordan has 688 tanks, the majority of which are modified Challenger-1, and the rest are modified Chieftain tanks, and some 50 light Scorpion tanks. The number of soldier carriers is 1156 vehicle. Jordanian army has a capable engineering base capable of finding scientific solutions to armours and vehicle problems.
Jordan has a huge artillery force consisting of 351 automated 155mm/203mm cannons, and a variety of Howitzers. Jordan will receive 12 HIMARS rocket launchers from China. Jordan army has a missile anti- armour force consisting of 330 TOW launcher with 7,000 rockets, and 310 Dragon, 30 Javelin with 110 rockets. Jordan army has 14 Hawk anti aircraft batteries with 532 rockets.
Jordanian air forces have 3 interceptor squadrons consisting of 24 Mirage F-1. Another squadrons consist of some 37 F-16 A/B. Jordan has 10 planes for military transportation, and 22 transport helicopters. Special Operations brigade has 8 Black Hawk UH-60L, and 8 MD-500 helicopters. Royal air force has 9 jets and helicopters, but the number of helicopter fighters is 21 Cobra AH-1SW.
Jordanian land forces are under the command of two armoured divisions, each has two armoured brigades, a mechanical brigade, an artillery brigade, and an air defence brigade. These forces work within the command of two mechanical divisions, each division consists of an armoured brigade, two mechanical brigade, artillery brigade, and an air defence brigade.
Jordan intends to form some 3 brigades of Special Forces consisting of 10,000 soldiers and equipped with their own helicopters, and light combat Boeing AH-6 helicopters. The military command wants to enhance the capabilities of the Jordanian army and its capabilities in fighting terrorism. The Jordanian Special Forces are strong enough to be among the first in defending the country against any outside attacks
Advanced Equipment for Special Operations forces
Special operations are some kind of whirling wars characterised with the unity of targets and weapons. These forces are usually small units specialising in qualitative operations. The units have fighting skills, bodily and intellectual powers not found in ordinary soldiers working in the conventional military units.
Special operations are in principle attack operations against sensitive, valuable, and important targets. These attacks depend on surprise, speed, and uses high technology equipment.
Special operations forces carry a variety of operations and missions, such as fighting piracy, and terrorism. Other missions include reconnaissance in dangerous areas, participating in guerrilla wars, search and rescue missions. Some of the tactical missions of the Special operations forces are: 1- Airborne operations to occupy strategic points. 2- Air assaults missions. 3- Strategic reconnaissance missions. 3- Air raids on enemy command centres. 4- Training commando forces. 5- Attacking concentration camps and freeing war prisoners. 6- Special operations in densely populated areas.
Weapons of Special Forces: handguns, machine guns, anti armour weapons, bayonets, knives, hand grenades, fire launchers, bomb launchers, and mine detectors.
Equipment used by Special Forces includes light weight clothes, insulated suits, body armour, ropes, and axes.
Communications equipment: Light weight radio equipment, detectors of NBC and, night vision equipment, UAV’s.
Transportation means: Special Forces use a variety of equipment depending on the required mission. Helicopters, special speed boats, armoured and non-armoured tactical vehicles are the most required.
Special attack vehicles used are of two types: developed vehicles specifically for Special Forces operations, and other commercial or military vehicles capable of working on various land surfaces. This second type includes vehicles designed for long range special operations. Chassis used in this type are Land Rover Defender, AM General, and General Dynamics (maker of HMMWV) and MRAP.
Low density populated areas with little vegetation and modest infrastructure, such as desert, is a perfect theatre for the Special Forces.
|Ship-borne Helicopters: Armed and dangerous |
Helicopters have quickly become an indispensable tool for carrying out anti-surface warfare in the challenging littoral arena, where warships are often confronted by asymmetric threats, such as FAC and FIAC. During the late sixties and early seventies of the last century, both the French and Italian Navies fitted their helicopters with AS-12 missiles against the threat of the ever-present OSA and KOMAR missile-armed FAC crowding the Mediterranean waters. The UK Royal Navy during the 1982 Falklands War deployed the AS-12from Westland WASP helicopters.
The main task foreseen by the navies is the attack of small targets, like corvettes and below, because ship-to-ship missile is considered expensive. The capability of a helicopter to reconnoitre the target before firing, and its inherent ability to prowl among islets, capes, shorelines, and even harbours, represents a much needed improvement over a limited ship-to-ship capability.
The Kongsberg PENGUIN MK2 Mod7 is the helicopter-launched variant of the well-known ship-based Mk2. The helicopter- launched PENGUIN was selected by four Navies: Brazil, Greece, Spain, and the US. The successor of PENGUIN is the newer Konsberg NSM. MBDA is manufacturing another well-known helicopter-launched anti-ship missile, the SEA SKUA which is in service with Royal Navy, Brazil, Germany, South Korea, Malaysia, and Turkey. SEA SKUA played a significant role during both the 1982 Falkland War and the 1991 Gulf War. In 1999 the Royal Navy launched the Future Anti Surface Guided Weapon Program as a replacement to SEA SKUA inventory. The French ANL is the replacement of the venerable AS-12, paid off by the French in 1995.
Smaller Anti-FIAC Missiles. The increasing asymmetric threat posed by FAC and FIAC in littoral waters urged naval planners to find a solution for engaging fast craft which could attack in great numbers, saturating the traditional ship-borne. Armed helicopters could take care of these threatening craft at long range. HELLFIRE was initially conceived as an anti-armour missile. HELLFIRE offers an 8km range and is laser-guided. MBDA proposes BRIMSTONE, a derivative of the HELLFIRE with a fire-and-forget guidance.
Joint Air to Ground Missile JAGM is an all-weather system, direct attack, 100 pound class weapon system. The US Navy awarded a contract to BAE Systems for the low-rate initial production of the Advanced Precision – Kill Weapon System-II (APKWS-II). This is a guidance section used to convert the current unguided 70 mm Hydra rockets into a low-cost laser-guided smart munitions.
Armed helicopters provide armed protection and disabling, or suppressing fire during assault face. Sniper rifles and pintle-mounted machine guns are the preferred weapons for this task.
|Air Power in Counterinsurgency |
Air power is an important asset for the US, multinational, and host nation forces fighting an insurgency. Air Power could be defined as all assets of all services, multinational powers, and the host nation that fly or operate from space. These include strike aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft, air transport, helicopters, unmanned aerial systems, and space satellites.
In counterinsurgency operations, air power will serve predominantly in a supporting role. Aircraft can strike, but the main role of air power is to provide reconnaissance and transporting troops, equipment and supplies. Insurgencies cannot be defeated from the air, but air power serves as a tremendous force enhancer and enables counter insurgency forces to operate more effectively.
The advantages of Airpower: Airpower provides flexibility and initiative. The presence of airpower strike capability alone provides a deterrent, and denies the insurgent many options.
Airpower in the Strike Role: It should be done with exceptional care. Bombing can cause unintended civilian casualties. Bombing a target that results in civilian casualties will bring media coverage that works to the benefit of the insurgents. Insurgents today can be expected to use the civilian population as a cover for their activities.
Airpower in Intelligence Collection: It has a major role in intelligence collection, and can employ imagery and infrared systems to find hidden base camps and insurgent defensive positions. Air assets have proven important in convoy and route protection and in tactical operations. Intelligence obtained through air and space platform is most useful if it is tied in quickly and efficiently with a joint intelligence centre where other forms of intelligence can be fused.
High-tech air and space systems in use today have proven their worth in counter intelligence. Aerial surveillance platforms with long loiter times can place an entire region under constant surveillance. UASs such as PREDATOR and REAPER have also been equipped with precision munitions. The role-tech aspects of airpower have also proven effective in counterintelligence.
The effective use of airpower in counterintelligence requires an effective joint and multinational command structure. One of the first steps in counterintelligence is the establishment of a joint and multinational airpower command and control system and agreed policies on the rules and conditions for employing airpower in the battle theatre.
Building the host-nation’s airpower capability is the final objective of US and multinational operations. Host-nation air force should be appropriate for that nation’s requirements, and requires the following basic capabilities: Aerial reconnaissance and surveillance, and air transport, close air support for land troops, helicopter troop lift, and medical evacuation.
NBC Detection Equipment
The term "weapons of mass destruction WMD" was used in the year 1937 to describe the aerial bombing of a Spanish city. The destruction of New York twin towers in the year 2001 was described as some kind of mass destruction, but with Anthrax the fears increased in USA of the dangers of unconventional wars.
Atomic bombs are the most dangerous among weapons of mass destruction. The world is living nowadays the threat of real war between Israel, USA and Iran over its nuclear program. The countries related to nuclear weapons are: USA, which is the only country to use nuclear weapons when it bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan with atomic bombs during the Second World War; People’s Republic of China, India, France, Russia, Pakistan, Britain, and North Korea. Israel and Iran have their own nuclear programs. Many countries in the world possess special technologies to develop chemical and biological weapons.
The best protection against the threats of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons lies in the early detection of polluted places.
The most prominent producers of NRBC (nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical) protection and detection devices are:
- Brucker Daltonics: A German company operating since 20 years. Most important products are: RAID S2, a gas detector in chemical warfare; portable poison detector PTD which is used in biological war; radioactive and chemical materials detector RAID – XP; explosives and chemical warfare materials detectors NIGAS.
- Smiths Detection: A company specializing in designing and making special nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological sensors. Most important products: Multi-role MMTD detects chemical warfare, poisonous, explosive, and narcotic materials; portable SABRE 5000, small in volume, light weight, works on vapour detecting principle.
- General Dynamics: A prominent American company in the production of armoured vehicles and cannons. The company produced a special vehicle for surveying polluted areas with CBRN. The vehicle was given the name FOX M93, and it is a variation of the Fuchs, which is made by the German company Rheinmetal as an armoured 6X6 wheeled vehicle. FOX M93 is used by American armed forces together with the Stryker armoured vehicle.
UAS Systems Payloads
An Unmanned Air System (UAS) is far more than just an aerial flying vehicle. They are used for an increasing number of missions, both military and civilian. A variety of payloads makes these missions possible: sensors, cameras, radar, communications electronics, electronic warfare, weaponry, and more. But the size, weight, and power requirements are posing significant hurdles.
An UAV is only part of an UAS, with the emphasis on the ‘system’, comprising a network of data links, sensors, and support elements. The sensors are becoming smaller, lighter, and cheaper.
Extraordinary Vision is the ability to see what others can’t. It is the ability to see first, to act first, the ability afforded by state-of-the- art imaging equipment. It provides a decisive advantage. Payloads of UAV’s vary between 0.75kg and 46kg for a large multi sensor payload. Their payloads differ in the types of sensors which are utilized in each payload including Daylight Color 1CCD or 3CCD cameras, Eye-Safe Laser Range Finder, and Laser pointer.
CONTROP payloads are designed for applications requiring aerial photography, including surveillance, reconnaissance, intelligence and observation, and many various missions. CONTROP payloads include the following groups: Short range payloads for effective mission ranges of up to 1000 metres, medium range payloads for effective mission ranges of up 3-5 kilometres, and long range payloads for effective mission ranges of up to 7-10 kilometres. CONTROP’s new EO/IR Laser Designator Payload, is a high performance, gyro-stabilised EQ/IR payload with a designator weighing only 32 kgs. One of the most exciting advances achieved in Electro- Optics technology in recent years has been the advent of inexpensive un-cooled IR focal plane arrays. The KTL -30 camera system developed by the Polish Etronica was presented for the first time at IDET 2011 in Brno, Czech Republic, delivers high-resolution day/night imagery for improved situational awareness. The camera can be ideally carried by mini-UAS for extensive image- gathering, navigational, and targeting purposes.
Goodrich’s Sensors Unlimited team has pioneered the design and production of shortwave IR detectors, arrays, cameras and systems. Kollsman, Inc.’s CoMPASS is a stabilised, high performance EO system used for observation, surveillance, tracking and targeting under battlefield conditions. MicroPilot’s stabilised payload cameras, high performance stabilised Pan Tilt Zoom observation systems featuring interchangeable thermal imaging, or daylight channel cameras, are fully integrated with MicroPilot’s MP2028g or MP2128g autopilot and HORIZONmp Ground Control Software. The UAV Collaborative has available four imaging payload packages for UAV use.